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Dujardin carried out a reevaluation of the site in order to define the stratigraphy, the deposition of the sediments and the archeological contents.

A limited excavation was conducted at that time 2. After this campaign, the stratigraphy revealed several levels, grouped into three complexes from the base to the top:. These levels contained little archaeological material but a dozen Chatelperronian points were recovered Dujardin These layers contain abundant ochre, lithic and faunal material bones, teeth and burnt bone , bone industry and decorative elements Dujardin ; Dupont On the basis of the typo-technological study, the lithic industry can be ascribed to the early Aurignacian Dujardin On the basis of the morphometric analysis of these remains, they can be ascribed to anatomically modern humans.

The decorative elements were not restudied here, but were nonetheless taken into consideration for the interpretative analysis. In this way, each piece was observed with a magnifying lens magnification x10 and a Leica Z16 APO macroscope magnification x Comparisons with ethnoarchaeological and archaeolgocial data relating to the consumption of small game were also taken into account Vigne et al.

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All the taxa tab. As is the case for this type of material in many archaeological sites, the number of remains and the number of individuals for each taxon is relatively small in comparison with the number of ungulate remains and individuals tab. There are eleven wolf and hare remains, while the only European polecat remain is the cotyloid cavity of a scapula. Vixen remains are much more abundant and account for more than three-quarters of the studied pieces. This identification was limited by the high fragmentation rate of the bone remains. As most of the osteometric reference frameworks are made up of whole bones eg.

We nonetheless identified a Red Fox and an Isatis on the basis of the second metatarsal tab. No specific determination was conducted for the hare as no diagnostic elements were present ie. Lastly, the Snowy Owl is represented by three phalanges, including two claws from the third finger and a penultimate. The proximal height of these two claws is identical Table 1 - La Quina aval: Number of identified remains per taxon and minimum number of individuals in brackets Early Aurignacian. Ungulate data derived from Soulier Table 2 - La Quina aval: Measurements of fox bones with specific identification.

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They are present on six wolf remains, sixteen fox remains, five hare remains, two indeterminate remains and a Snowy Owl bone, or more than a quarter of the analyzed remains. Most of the marks are made up of cut marks and several remains show traces of burning. During the excavation, ochre was so abundant in this sedimentary complex that the archaeological remains were stained Dujardin The presence of ochre on faunal remains cannot therefore be directly interpreted as a deliberate anthropogenic transformation.

However, the fact that ochre imprints were found on all the remains ungulates and small game suggests that all the bones were treated identically. Figure 2 - La Quina aval: Wolf remains. A: Left mandible with cut marks on lingual face. B: Lower right canine with detail of scraping marks on the root. C: First phalange with heat marks on the dorsal face. D: Right calcaneus, the distal part is missing; note the heat marks on the edge.

E: First phalange with ochre and cut marks on the plantar face. Scale bar is 1 cm. Table 3 - La Quina aval: Cut mark locations and interpretation of butchering activities. Location of marks: Ant: Anterior. Dist: Distal. Dors: Dorsal caudal. Prox: Proximal. Vest: Vestibular.

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Orientation: Long. Trans: Transverse. Other short and oblique cut marks are present on the phalanges and the calcaneus. Depending on their location and orientation these cut marks attest to carcass skinning. Other short and oblique cut marks fig. These could result from the removal of the tongue also noted by Binford for the reindeer. Lastly, scraping marks were observed on the apex of the root of a lower canine.


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These marks are not linked to food requirements but could correspond to the preparation of the tooth with a view to using it as a decorative element. The contextual data validate this hypothesis as the presence of ornamental elements in early excavations confirms the recovery of teeth for this purpose. Moreover, traces of burning were observed on the distal part of the calcaneus, as well as on a triquetrum pyramidal bone , a pisiform and on the dorsal side of a phalanx.

They result from the cooking of skeletal parts near a source of heat. A whole wolf carcass may thus have been brought to the site, skinned and then cooked.

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In this way, for early Aurignacian hunter-gatherers, this carnivore appears to have been part of their food meat consumption and utilitarian sphere teeth, removal and possible use of the skin. Certain bones are missing from the corpus, but this may be related to the limited extension of the excavation. The cut marks are all linked to cutting fig. They are present on the muzzle premaxilla and mandible , the tibia, radius, metapodial bones and certain phalanges.


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  • Other cut marks were observed on the neck and the crown of a premolar. The cut marks follow the mesio-distal orientation of the tooth and their number on the crown may indicate a repeated gesture from the front to the back. These marks have not been described in reference collections and are difficult to interpret in terms of butchery practices. Carcasses were thus intensively processed from the skinning stage until meat, and probably marrow consumption.

    However, the capture techniques practiced by hunters remain largely unknown, due to the absence of direct evidence. The consumption of the flesh of these animals has also been demonstrated, but no evidence of Aurignacian fox fur preparation and conservation has been revealed. Health Canada is responsible for the approval of pesticides in Canada.

    Governments of each province also have the power to prohibit the sale and use of pesticides in their territories. Environmental organizations demand that the two levels of government act in response to the results of this new study and ban neonicotinoids.

    A call to action is available at: www. Ainsi, on ne pleure plus ses proches ; au mieux, on se demande quand ils reviendront. Les juges, let notaires et les professeurs de droit, en revanche, y perdent leur latin. La vie jadis nous semblait absurde ; nous pensions que sans la mort elle le serait moins.

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    Every day new phenomena occur, every week our societies seem to be falling deeper down the rabbit hole. Two days later, they laid his body to rest in the village of his childhood, in the Bourgogne department of Yonne, where he owned a home. He tried to explain to the truck driver that he had died the week before, but the driver merely snickered under his breath and dropped him off five kilometers from the village in which he claimed to have been buried.

    Jambier walked the rest of the way, wondering what he would say to his wife. His return evoked bewilderment. Alarmed by locals, police called Jambier in for questioning. They brought him to the station to take his statement and, puzzled, phoned the prefect who responded with his immediate arrival. Once on the scene, the prefect noted the serious nature of the problem and accompanied the police to the cemetery to inspect the grave, which needless to say, was empty.

    After consulting the Prime Minister at his residence at Hotel Matignon, the prefect set up a press conference in Auxerre and informed the enthralled journalists that the commissioner Jambier had risen from the dead: sensational news that made the front page of every paper. The Jambier affair marked the beginning of a long series of similar cases, a resurrection epidemic that hit all of France and only accelerated as the days passed.

    According to departmental records, of the 6, people who died in March, 35 resurrected in April; of the 4, deceased in April, nearly had risen in May; of the 5, deceased in May, were on their feet again in June. Statistical analysts extrapolated charts and concluded that the number of resurrections would exponentially increase in the following months, to the point of affecting all of the deceased.

    In the meantime, politicians in the public eye thrived on the media exposure they were receiving. People viewed the resurrected with fear, but also with a certain admiration. Most believed that to be reborn was a privilege granted by a transcendent power with a master plan, and deducted that those affected must have been exceptional individuals, possibly endowed with a special power.

    Flattered and a little embarrassed, the resurrected remained uncertain as to whether they owed their return to earth to chance, to how they had lived their life, or to some unidentified personality trait they embodied. Some claimed that they had done nothing special to deserve a second chance and asked to be left in peace; others feigned modesty and explained that coming back to life was easy, that it sufficed to have good hygiene and get enough sleep.

    Galvanized, millions of French citizens rewrote their wills refusing cremation, fearing with good reason that to destroy their bodies would keep them from coming back to life. Thus, we no longer cry over our loved ones; at best, we wonder when they will be back.