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Other countries: West Malaysia; Indonesia; Philippines. There is a concentration of these common vipers on the island of Phuket, Thailand. During the day these vipers can sometimes be found as little as a meter off the ground, up to a couple meters. They seem to prefer bushes over trees. Recently I found a gravid female at one meter off the forest floor and resting on a strong vine just 1 cm in diameter. Active Time? Mainly nocturnal, but occasionally found during the day, especially during or after rain. Crepuscular in nature, they are more often active during dusk and dawn, or on an unusually dark day during heavy rain.

I have found these snakes during the day in a moderate rain at meters elevation, and at hours after a light rain. Food: Birds — especially baby birds in the nest, mice and other rodents, lizards, frogs. Defensive Behavior: Coil back into s-shape before striking. Strike is typically less than. Mouth wide-open exposing very long fangs and white tissue. Can strike in succession rather quickly. Their strike is not very fast in comparison with some of the other vipers.

The heat-sensing pits between the eyes can sense temperature difference as little as 0. If continuously threatened they may hold their mouth wide open, like the photo above. Venom Toxicity: Potentially deadly. Strong venom that usually does not result in death to humans. Victims experience a strong burning sensation upon envenomation, and swelling, necrosis of tissue.

The multi-valent antivenom for green pit vipers treats envenomation by this snake.

Red-necked keelback

Offspring: Live birth in September is common, with up to 41 young per litter. Notes: Though these snakes are said to be exclusively arboreal and nocturnal, I found one on a mountain recently during the middle of the day, on the ground, during a rain shower. See the video below.

I was thinking it was. He had squatted down to rest and heard a little rustle in the brush — and found this amazing specimen of… well, pit viper. Jeremy himself narrowed it down to one of two — either Trimeresurus macrops or Trimeresurus albolabris White Lipped Pit Viper. General: General Systemic Effects Insufficient clinical reports to know. General: Neurotoxic Paralysis Unlikely to occur.

Trimeresurus gramineus - Wikipedia

General: Renal Damage No case reports for this species, but related species can cause renal failure. General: Other Shock secondary to fluid shifts due to local tissue injury is possible in severe cases. Description: First aid for bites by Viperid snakes likely to cause significant local injury at the bite site see listing in Comments section. Details 1. After ensuring the patient and onlookers have moved out of range of further strikes by the snake, the bitten person should be reassured and persuaded to lie down and remain still. Many will be terrified, fearing sudden death and, in this mood, they may behave irrationally or even hysterically.

The basis for reassurance is the fact that many venomous bites do not result in envenoming, the relatively slow progression to severe envenoming hours following elapid bites, days following viper bites and the effectiveness of modern medical treatment.

Bamboo Viper Eats Gecko

The bite wound should not be tampered with in any way. Wiping it once with a damp cloth to remove surface venom is unlikely to do much harm or good but the wound must not be massaged. All rings or other jewellery on the bitten limb, especially on fingers, should be removed, as they may act as tourniquets if oedema develops. The bitten limb should be immobilised as effectively as possible using an extemporised splint or sling; if available, crepe bandaging of the splinted limb is an effective form of immobilisation. If there is any impairment of vital functions, such as problems with respiration, airway, circulation, heart function, these must be supported as a priority.

In particular, for bites causing flaccid paralysis, including respiratory paralysis, both airway and respiration may be impaired, requiring urgent and prolonged treatment, which may include the mouth to mask mouth to mouth technique of expired air transfer. Seek urgent medical attention.

Do not use Tourniquets, cut, suck or scarify the wound or apply chemicals or electric shock. Avoid peroral intake, absolutely no alcohol. No sedatives outside hospital. If there will be considerable delay before reaching medical aid, measured in several hours to days, then give clear fluids by mouth to prevent dehydration. If the offending snake has been killed it should be brought with the patient for identification only relevant in areas where there are more than one naturally occurring venomous snake species , but be careful to avoid touching the head, as even a dead snake can envenom.

No attempt should be made to pursue the snake into the undergrowth as this will risk further bites. Savitzky pointed out that European vipers adders have relatively moderate venom that is not highly lethal, while Gaboon vipers, which are found in sub-Saharan Africa, have highly potent venom. It causes intense swelling, pain and necrosis, which is cell death and decay. It also functions as an anticoagulant. Death usually occurs from a dramatic collapse in blood pressure.

All viper bites should be treated seriously and medical attention should be paid. In addition to killing prey and injuring predators, viper venom helps vipers digest their food, according to Sfetcu.

Golden sunset

Since they swallow their prey whole, digesting it is a big job not helped by vipers' generally inefficient digestive systems. The venom breaks down lipids, acids and proteins in the prey during the digestive process. Most vipers are ovoviviparous, Savitzky said. That means the eggs are fertilized and incubate inside the mother and she gives birth to live young. And all New World pit vipers but one have live birth. That one is the Bushmaster viper and it has re-evolved egg laying.

The taxonomy of vipers is:. Gaboon vipers are the largest vipers in the world, reaching lengths of up to 7 feet cm and more than 22 lbs. Females are significantly longer than males. Though the South American Bushmaster is longer, the Gaboon viper is heavier. Savitzky noted that Gaboon vipers are of the adder lineage, so referring to them as Gaboon adders is also correct.


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They live throughout sub-Saharan Africa in rainforests and other tropical areas. They spend most of their time lying in wait among leaf litter. Gaboon vipers' real claims to fame are their extraordinary long fangs — the longest of any snake, said Savitzky.

Trimeresurus gramineus

Gaboon vipers' fangs can be up to 2 inches 5 cm long. They also have potent venom. They mostly eat small mammals, birds and amphibians, but have been recorded eating small antelopes and giant rats, according to the ADW. Pit vipers are a subfamily Crotalinae of vipers. There are about species, according to ITIS. Pit vipers are found throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia. All vipers in the Americas are pit vipers, according to The University of Pittsburgh. They detect heat energy.


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Pit vipers see the world in a combination of heat and light. The receptors detect warm blooded prey but also can detect cold blooded prey, though they're more responsive to warm. Some species of pit vipers include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, lanceheads and bushmasters.

Several types of snakes are referred to as green vipers due to their coloring. They include the Chinese green viper Trimeresurus stejnegeri , the green night adder Causus resimus , the Great Lakes bush viper Atheris nitschei and the newly discovered ruby-eyed green pit viper Cryptelytrops rubeus.